# 45 Strafe

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45° Strafe is a technique that grants more speed than regular movement.

It can be done by strafing and turning 45° degrees (hence the name).

45° Strafe can be performed by either:

• Turning 45° left and Strafing right.
• Turning 45° right and Strafing left.

The turning must be quick (< 1tick) and precise (at least ±11.5°, the closer to ±0° the better), so it's difficult to perform consistently.

Some jumps require the use of 45° strafe, such as 1bm 4.375b.

## Effect on Movement

On every tick, the Player gains some acceleration depending on inputs and other factors.

• When moving forward (without strafing), the acceleration gained is scaled by ${\displaystyle 0.98}$
• When strafing, the acceleration is scaled by ${\displaystyle 1.0}$

Therefore, 45° Strafe is ${\displaystyle {1.0 \over 0.98}}$ times faster than regular movement (about 2% faster).

Special case: 45° Sneak

• When sneaking forward (without strafing), the acceleration gained is scaled by ${\displaystyle 0.98}$
• When strafing while sneaking, the acceleration gained is scaled by ${\displaystyle 0.98 \sqrt{2}}$ (≈ 1.386)

45° Sneak is used for no momentum jumps (example).

Outside of parkour, it's notably used for bridging, as it's ~41% faster than regular sneaking.

## Explanation

Below is a simplified version of the horizontal movement source code.

 1 /*
2  * Code from Entity and EntityLivingBase
3  * Unnecessary or unrelated code is stripped out
4  */
5
6 public void onLivingUpdate()
7 {
8     /*
9      * moveStrafing and moveForward represent relative movement.
10      * moveStrafing = 1.0 if moving left, -1.0 if moving right, else 0.0
11      * moveForward = 1.0 if moving forward, -1.0 if moving backward, else 0.0
12      *
13      * Furthermore, moveStrafing and moveForward *= 0.3 if the player is sneaking.
14      */
15
16     this.moveStrafing *= 0.98F;
17     this.moveForward *= 0.98F;
19 }
20
21
22
23 public void moveEntityWithHeading(float strafe, float forward)
24 {
25     /* inertia determines how much speed is conserved onto the next tick */
26     float mult = 0.91F;
27     if (this.onGround)
28     {
29         /* Get slipperiness 1 block below the player */
30         mult *= getBlockSlipperinessAt(this.posX, this.getEntityBoundingBox().minY - 1, this.posZ);
31     }
32
33     /* acceleration = (0.6*0.91)^3 / (slipperiness*0.91)^3) */
34     float acceleration = 0.16277136F / (mult * mult * mult);
35
36     float movementFactor;
37     if (this.onGround)
38         movementFactor = this.landMovementFactor * acceleration;
39         /* base: 0.1; x1.3 if sprinting, affected by potion effects. */
40
41     else
42         movementFactor = this.airMovementFactor;
43         /* base: 0.02; x1.3 if sprinting */
44
45     this.updateMotionXZ(strafe, forward, movementFactor);
46     this.moveEntity(this.motionX, this.motionY, this.motionZ);
47
48     this.motionY -= 0.08D; /* gravity */
49     this.motionY *= 0.98D; /* drag */
50
51     this.motionX *= mult;
52     this.motionZ *= mult;
53 }
54
55
56
57 public void updateMotionXZ(float strafe, float forward, float movementFactor)
58 {
59     /*
60      * This function is responsible for the existence of 45° strafe. The geometry doesn't seem to make sense...
61      * Note that:
62      *     - Sprint multiplier is contained within "movementFactor"
63      *     - Sneak multiplier is contained within "strafe" and "forward"
64      * This is likely because Sneaking was implemented long before Sprinting
65      */
66     float distance = strafe * strafe + forward * forward;
67
68     if (distance >= 1.0E-4F)
69     {
70         distance = MathHelper.sqrt_float(distance);
71
72         if (distance < 1.0F)
73             distance = 1.0F;
74
75         distance = movementFactor / distance;
76         strafe = strafe * distance;
77         forward = forward * distance;
78         float sinYaw = MathHelper.sin(this.rotationYaw * Math.PI / 180.0F);
79         float cosYaw = MathHelper.cos(this.rotationYaw * Math.PI / 180.0F);
80         this.motionX += strafe * cosYaw - forward * sinYaw;
81         this.motionZ += forward * cosYaw + strafe * sinYaw;
82     }
83 }